India has a capacity to develop about 1,95,000 MW of non-conventional energy resource. India was the first country in the world to set up a ministry of non-conventional energy resources, in early 1980s.Various form of non-conventional energy being harnessed in India are as follows:-
Solar:- India receives sunlight for 300 days/year and thus has a potential to produce 20 MW of solar energy per sq. km. At present solar energy is utilized through two medium:- solar thermal medium and solar photovoltaic medium. Total solar energy installed capacity is 4,684.74 MW. Solar energy development has been held back due to high installation costs. National solar mission has helped in establishing India as a leader in Solar energy.
Wind:- India is fourth largest in the world and largest in asia in wind energy production. Total installed capacity of wind energy is 24,759.32 MW. The favourable condition for the development of wind energy are present in the states of Tamil Nadu, Maharastra, Karnataka, Gujarat and Rajasthan.
Wave:- Wave energy utilises the pressure developed by the sea waves. Wave energy plants are established in Vizingam(Kerala ),Mus point(andaman and nikobar),and Thangassari(Kerala)
Tidal:- Kachchh in Gujurat, Gulf of Khambhat and Sunderbans are ideal for the the development of tidal energy
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion:- In OTEC system the variation of temperature at different level of sea water is used for electricity generation. Reserch work is being carried out at tuticorin, TN and Andaman Nicobar
Geothermal Energy:- Manikaran(HP), Puga valley (Ladakh), Surajkhand (Jharkhand) and Tapovan in Utrakhand
Bioenergy and Biofuels