Reasons for the growth of militant nationalism

Disillusionment of the nationalists with moderate policies

  • The moderates thought that the British could be reformed from within
  • Politically conscious Indians were convinced that the purpose of the British rule was to exploit India economically
  • The nationalists realized that Indian industries could not flourish except under an Indian government
  • Disastrous famines from 1896 to 1900 took a toll of over 90 lakh lives
  • The Indian Councils Act of 1892 was a disappointment
  • The Natu brothers were deported in 1897 without trial
  • In 1897 B G Tilak was sentenced to long term imprisonment for arousing the people against the government
  • In 1904, the Indian Official Secrets Act was passed restricting the freedom of the Press
  • Primary and technical education was not making any progress
  • Thus, increasing number of Indians were getting convinced that self-government was essential for the sake of economic, political and cultural progress of the country

 

Growth of Self-respect and  self-confidence

  • Tilak, Aurobindo and Pal preached the message of self-respect
  • They said to the people that remedy to their condition lay in their own hand and they should therefore become strong
  • Swami Vivekananda’s messages

 

Growth of education and unemployment

 

International Influences

  • Rise of modern Japan after 1868
  • Defeat of the Italian army by the Ethiopians in 1896 and of Russia by Japan in 1905 exploded the myth of European superiority

Existence of a Militant Nationalist School of Thought

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