Evolution of rajasthani languages from Shaurseni Prakrit
Saureni Prakrit is then developed into:-
- Gurjar in western region
- Shaurseni in eastern region (Apram bhasha)
- Maru Gurjar or old Rajasthani
- its common language of Rajasthan and Gujrat
- 1st work was Bhrateshwar Bahubali Ghor by Vajrasensuri in 1168 ad
- In 15th century it evolved to Dingal
- Dingal was generally used in ballards and chronicles of warriors heroic deeds in the mewar and Marwar region
- It developed in Pingal which is a rajasthani variation of Braj Bhasha
- It was largely used for devotional and erotic poetry
- they preserves the glorious and martial deeds of their patrons
- Khayat- Chronicles
- Vats- Accounts of past events
Decline of Rajasthani Languages after the British rule was mainly due to following factors:-
- Outdated feudal system
- Growth of Printing press,newspaper and free discussion was largely discouraged in the princely states.
- Royal patronage to rajasthani was largely discontinued.
- Influence of Hindi
- Growth of Khardi boli
Present status of Rajasthani Languages and their main variations –
- Kamdhari- Nagari script mainly used in administration
- Jain style- Manuscript writing
- Modiya- Used by Trading class
- Shasti- Common people language.
The Rajasthani languages belong to the Western Indo-Aryan language family. However, they are controversially conflated with the Hindi languages of the Central-Zone in the Indian national census, among other places. The varieties of the Rajasthani language are:
- Rajasthani :the common lingua franca of Rajasthani people and is spoken by over 18 million people in different parts of Rajasthan.
- Marwari: the most spoken Rajasthani in the historic Marwar region of western Rajasthan.
- Malvi: Spoken in the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh.
- Dhundhari: Spoken speakers in the Dhundhar region of Rajasthan.
- Harauti: Spoken in the Hadoti region of Rajasthan.
- Mewari: Spoken in the Mewar region of Rajasthan.
- Mewati: Spoken in the Mewat region, comprising Haryana and Rajasthan.
- Shekhawati: Spoken in the Shekhawati region of Rajasthan.
- Bagri: Spoken in northern Rajasthan and northwestern Haryana. There are also speakers situated in southern Punjab.
- Nimadi: Spoken in the Nimar region of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.
- Other Rajasthani languages are Dhatki, Godwari, Gujari, Gurgula, Goaria and Lambadi.