Rajasthani Languages and Literature – for Ras RTS exam

Rajasthani Languages

Evolution of rajasthani languages from Shaurseni Prakrit

Saureni Prakrit is then developed into:-

  • Gurjar in western region
  • Shaurseni in eastern region (Apram bhasha)

Gurjar-

  • Maru Gurjar or old Rajasthani
  • its common language of Rajasthan and Gujrat
  • 1st work was Bhrateshwar Bahubali Ghor by Vajrasensuri in 1168 ad
  • In 15th century it evolved to Dingal
  • Dingal was generally used in ballards and chronicles of warriors heroic deeds in the mewar and Marwar region

Shaurseni-

  • It developed in Pingal which is a rajasthani variation of Braj Bhasha
  • It was largely used for devotional and erotic poetry

Charans:-

  • they preserves the glorious and martial deeds of their patrons
  • Khayat- Chronicles
  • Vats- Accounts of past events
  • Vigats-Gazettes

Decline of Rajasthani Languages after the British rule was mainly due to following factors:-

  • Outdated feudal system
  • Growth of Printing press,newspaper and free  discussion was largely discouraged in the princely states.
  • Royal patronage to rajasthani was largely discontinued.
  • Influence of Hindi
  • Growth of Khardi boli

Present status of Rajasthani Languages and their main variations –

  • Kamdhari- Nagari script mainly used in administration
  • Jain style- Manuscript writing
  • Modiya- Used by Trading class
  • Shasti- Common people language.
Rajasthani Literature

Rajasthani Literature can be classified into three categories, which are as follows:-

  1. Sanskrit and Prakrit
  2. Rajasthani
  3. Hindi

Sanskrit and Prakrit

Major literature of Sanskrit and prakrit developed in Rajasthan are as follows:-

  • Shishupal Vadh by poet Magh
  • Samaraichcha Katha by Hari Bhadra Suri
  • Kuvalaya Mala by Udyotan Suri
  • Upmiti Bharva Prancha Katha by Sidhi Rishi
  • Harkaili by Vigrah Raj Chauhan IV of Ajmer
  • Prithvi Raj Vijay by Prithvi Raj Chauhan
  • Geet Goving and Sangeet Raj by Jai deva
  • Charan Literature

Rajasthani

Major literature of Rajasthani developed in Rajasthan are classified into three styles which are as follows:-

  1. Jain- such as Prithvi Raj charit by Manak Chandra
  2. Dingal or Charan- like Prithvi Raj Raso by Chand Bardai, Rao Jaitasirau Chhanda by Vithu Sujo Nagarjota.
  3. Popular- like Veli Krishna Rukmani by Prithvi raj Rathore, Vansh Bhaskar by Surya Mal, Songs of Meera Bai, Khayal which are dance drama’s

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