Purusharth: RAS/RTS Mains updated syllabus

The Hindu scriptures declare four goals in human life and they are called the purushartha. The term purushartha not only denotes what the objectives of life should be but it also means what the objectives of life are as the result of the psychological tendencies of the individual. The purushartha consists of dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha in the same order.

Dharma is the stability of the society, the maintenance of social order, and the general welfare of mankind. And whatever conduces to the fulfilment of this purpose is called ‘dharma’. There is diversity in meaning of religion of ancient times and of modern times. In the Rigveda Dharma is the name of moral laws and approved way of behavior. Religion means good traits in man and required better norms for the society. E.g. Rajadharma,Prajadharma, Kuldharma, varnadharma, Patnidharma, Ashramadharma,etc. in other words, the matters which are necessary for the development of society is called religion.

Artha is the acquisition of wealth, is regarded as the primary purpose of life, as without it, human existence is impossible. One has to live before one can live well. Artha is the foundation upon which the whole structure of life has been built and all the other purushrtha-s can be achieved only by the fulfilment of this primary purpose in life. The acquisition of wealth is through dharmic actions and wealth needs to be used in the preservation of dharma. Aretha and kama both are material needs of men. According to Kautilya,Aretha means the means of subsistence. The land where people are living is the ‘Aretha’. The efforts of the man to fulfill his fundamental needs i.e. production, distribution,and exchange of goods to secure physical and mental pleasure.

Kama means desires, desires of varying degrees. It is from dharma that artha and kama result. Man recognises here that artha and kama satisfy the psychological tendencies of man and they form essentially the two fundamental aspirations of every individual. The desire is fulfilled within the norms and homework of society. Aretha fulfills sexual desire and Dharma is govern and control the aim of Kama. Because of Dharma even a disable of feeble person can fulfill his desire ungoverned,uncontrolled way of sexual intercourse is anti-social,harmful and condemned by Hindu religion. The sexual desire must be fulfilled for obtaining the Moksha and it should by fulfilled according to religion norms.

Moksha means free from;it is freedom from worries. There are certain way to Moksha,they are-Gyan,Yoga,karma Yoga ,Bhakti Yoga and Raj Yoga etc. means Dharma,Aretha, Kama and Moksha. The Moksha is known as Nirwan,Brahamanirwan, Jiwanmukti,Kaiwalyla,etc. Moksha means abolishment of ignorance and to search out the causes of worries. According to Bhagwad Gita the person whose soul is free from worries only can get the Moksha.
Moksha is the ultimate freedom from birth and death or the deliverance of the soul from bondage. From the advaitic point of view, moksha results from the extinction of false knowledge (ignorance). The self-knowledge is the aim and end of man’s misery and bondage.