In a multilingual,multi cultural democratic set up like India,voting behaviour is dictated by a plethora of complex issues.From time and again it has been proved that political parties in India can not rely upon any particular factor to win the trust and confidence of the voters.Such is the complex nature of the voting behavior that even the best of the psephologists or social scientists or even genius politicians failed to read public psychology on numerous occasions.
determinants of the voting behaviour in India:
? Race: Sometimes and in some regions, yet race plays a role like in North Eastern states, it will be very tough to get elected by any south Indian and so is the case with south India also.
? Religion: It is as fact that religion plays a important role especially where both the followers Hindus and Muslims are situated in a constituency. This gave a support to Religion based parties. Though in a secular state like India, it must not be used.
? Casteism : This is the biggest determinants of the voting behaviour for the past five decades in India. This is the most ancient and widely used factor. Parties give tickets to the candidate of a caste which has the majority in the constituencies.
? Regionalism: After 1990s it is getting more and more importance. Demanding separate region, promoting region specific interest, claiming representation to end exploitation etc. are the main emerging causes from regionalism.
? Language: Language does not play a big role but at national level but it is deciding factor at state level politics
? Charismatic Leaders: Leaders like J. L. Nehru, Indira Gandhi, Jai Prakash Narayan, attract a number of voters due to their personal influence of behaviour, look, style, and ideology.
? Ideology: Some political ideologies play a deciding factor like democrats, socialism and communism.
? Development: Development factor is practised in developed democracy. It is a sign of old and smooth running democratic system. It is expected that this is the main and desirable factor that should play a big role in determining the voting behaviour.
? Incidences: Some important and sudden events and incidences can change the equations in politics.
? Cadre: Some of the voters are emotionally attached to the political parties and they vote in the name of the party only.
? Individuals: The ability and speciality and of course popularity of the individuals as the candidate also influence the voters.