Blood and Related Diseases for Ras RTS

Blood consists of Plasma 55% and formed elements that is blood cells(Erythrocytes,Levcocytes and Thrombocytes)

Plasma consists of (water 90% +proteins 8% +inorganic salts such as Sodium ,Potassium, calcium and magnesium + food substances like glucose and amino acid)

Formed elements of blood cells are red blood cells or Erythrocytes, white blood cells or Levcocytes and  platelets or Thrombocytes

  • red blood cells  are 5 million per litre
  • white blood cell are 6000 per litre
  • platelates are 3.5 lakh per litre

Blood transfusion

Incompatibilty of blood transfusion resulting from mismatched between doner antigens and reciepient antibodies.

Antigens is a chemical substance which leads to immune response in the form of production of antibodies.

If the donor blood of 1 blood type is transfused into a recipient who has another blood type, transfusion reaction is likely to occur in which RBC of Donor blood are dumped, then this dump plug small blood vessel through the circulatory system .iPlasma portion of donor blood immediately become diluted by all the plasma of the recipient there by decreasing the concentration of the infused antibodies.

Formation of antibody or anti RH factor:-

when RBC containing Rh Factor are injected into a person who blood does not contain the Rh Factor. Then the Anti Rh factors are developed slowly(in about 2-3 months)  With multiple exposure to Rh+ Factor the Rh- person eventually becomes strongly sensalized to the Rh Factor.

Haemosiasis:-

It is the natural defensive mechanism to prevent excessive blood loss. In response to rapture of the blood vessel, a complex chemical reactions occur in the blood involving more than a dozen of blood  clotting factors.the net result is the formation of activated substance as an activator and thrombin ,released from the injured platelet which convert  Prothrombin to thrombin  in the presence of calcium.

PTMB is the plasma protein formed by the liver and being used throughout the body for the small vitamin K is needed by the liver for the normal formulation of platelet and others blood clotting factor ,therefore either the lack of vitamin K or the presence of liver disease that prevent normal platelet formation can decrease the platelet level so low that bleeding tendency result.

 

Sickle Cell anaemia:-

  • is an autosomal recessive genetic blood disorder in which the diffect lie only in BP chain of hemoglobin, such that it’s fixed position and amino acid known as glutamic acid get replaced by the valine. this replacement result in the sickining of haemoglobin that further sickens  RBC.
  • RBC are destroyed within 10 to 20 days as compared to the normal life span of 120 days
  • so deficiency of RBC and hemoglobin is known as Sickle Cell anaemia

Haemophilia

  • It is an x chromosome linked recessive bleeding disorder in which the process of blood clotting is delayed due to absence of factor known as Haemophilia A or B.
  • the disease is expressed almost exclusively in males while female suffers only when both her  X chromosome are defected.
  • when a sun suffer from haemophilia it indicates mother is either career or affected

Colour blindness

  • Colour blindness is also X-chromosome related recessive physical disorder in the form of Red and Green colour blindness.
  • This disorder is expressed almost exclusively by mans.

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